A substantial reduction in operating cost per bus-kilometre through improved productivity is shown. However, substantial losses to users through higher fares and service instability emerge. Large increases in bus-kilometres operated did not produce any aggregate increase in ridership, but offset much of the reduction in unit cost. Overall, a small net benefit is shown in the metropolitan areas, but a net loss elsewhere. In contrast, London (subject to a competitive tendering system) shows no user or worker losses, and a substantial net benefit through higher productivity.
Topic: 14.6 Surface Passenger
A case study shows the net benefits that would result from various measures to restrain the use of cars in the centre of Boston, Mass. Similar benefits would be likely in other cities.
Simulation by a computer program showed that a proposed commuter railroad would be inferior in both time and money to express buses which could operate locally in the suburban area, travel along an expressway, and then make several stops in the central business district.
The town of Milwaukee commissioned research into the comparative merits of its existing Freeway Flier express bus; a controlled access system giving the Flier right of way and restricting access of automobiles on congested roads; and a busway with its own right of way. The existing system is found best; the busway is a poor third. Suggestions are made for applying the method used to other areas.
A Comment on the article by E. Smith in the January 1973 issue of the journal, together with a rejoinder by the author.
A comment on an article in the Journal by Mr. E. Smith in January 1973, together with a rejoinder by the author.
Experience in several countries leads the author to conclude that the construction of a new urban railway is seldom likely to be economic in comparison with an express bus service, which, with absolute priority but allowing other traffic to use spare capacity on the road, is found to be cheaper and more efficient. Some existing railways might be converted to roads.