Topic: 24. Subsidy

A complete indexing and article service is available free from 1967 to 2000

Alternative Tendering Systems and Deregulation in Britain

When UK bus services were deregulated in 1985 a system of competitive tendering was introduced for the provision of socially necessary services. Payment to the operator can be either the net difference between cost and revenue or the gross (total) cost of the service. While the former is attractive, a comparison of both methods indicates the overall cost to the contracting authority is generally lower under the gross cost method, due to the reduced risk perceived by the operator.

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Economic Efficiency of Railways and Implications for Public Policy: A Comparative Study of the OECD Countries’ Railways

The productive efficiency of the railway systems in 19 OECD countries is analysed. The empirical results show that: (i) railway systems with high dependence on public subsidies are significantly less efficient than similar railways with less dependence on subsidies; (ii) railways with a high degree of managerial autonomy from regulatory authorities tend to achieve higher efficiency.

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transport in Towns. Some of the Options

Increasing use of cars and decentralisation of activities will continue. The resulting deterioration in public transport causes hardship to those without access to a car, including some members of car-owning households. The author considers some ways of mitigating or slowing down these trends.

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