This study derives the implied values of reducing the risks of fatal and non-fatal injuries for different road user populations. Values are obtained for “typical” adults, children (as implied by their parents’ actions) and adults who ride motorcycles. Also considered is whether individuals evaluate small time increments consistently with larger time allocations.
Topic: 11. Safety
The study compares the external costs of road traffic accidents in different European countries and finds substantial differences in the external costs per vehicle-kilometre. It also finds that lorries and buses generate substantially higher external costs than passenger cars because pedestrians, cyclists, motor-cycle riders, and the occupants of passenger cars, face greater hazards from lorries and buses when a collision occurs.
This paper discusses the development of safety regulation in sea transport. It suggests that international competitive forces and regulatory capture, coupled with the slow and uneven effects of international conventions, has led to a sub-optimal level of ship safety. Reforms are therefore needed based on a systematic programme of cost-benefit analysis, involving higher quality of information.
The findings reported in this paper indicate a substantial premium for the willingness-to-pay based value of Underground safety relative to that of roads.
Since 1988, the UK Department of transport has valued the prevention of fatal road accident casualties on the basis of Willingness-To-Pay (WTP). To provide equivalent information for the value of avoidance of serious injuries, a national sample WTP survey and a Relative Utility Loss study were undertaken. The results, which show the value of injury in relation to the value of a fatality and the value for the prevention of serious road accident injuries, will apply in future DoT appraisals.
The costs and benefits of safety cannot logically be separated from the costs and benefits of mobility. Although the value of life and the value of time are difficult to estimate, there are means available for approaching monetary values. Calculations are given for one well-known safety intervention: the US 55 mph speed limit.
This paper develops simple models of drivers’ speed selection behaviour both with and without the influence of speed limits using data from a section of rural road in Norway. The results indicate the importance of a number of personal characteristics on drivers’ speed selection behaviour, including age, driving experience, attitudes towards travel time savings, and perceptions of enforcement and penalties. Moral hazard effects may also be present.
Deregulation of US aviation has not been followed by a marked increase in accidents. But there is evidence that safety has been impaired by failure to expand infrastructure and surveillance to keep pace with the increase in numbers of travelers.
Fatalities increase with higher income and with the use of trucks and (especially) motorcycles. They are reduced by higher prices of petrol, higher costs of accidents, and a more agricultural economy. The author discusses the pros and cons of compelling motorcyclists to wear helmets.