This paper tries to evaluate the productive performance of transit systems in major European cities. It makes intermodal and intercity comparisons, and identifies economies of density, vehicle capacity and higher vehicle speed as essential factors in performance. The results suggest that streetcars do not fill a significant gap between buses and underground rail.
Topic: 1.4 Metro Rail
Two conventional railway lines in Greater Manchester were replaced by a new light rail system. This paper uses hedonic price methodology to examine whether any of the claimed benefits were capitalised in house prices. No discernible effect was found. This finding contrasts with claims made for the urban transit schemes in other countries. Reasons for the differences and methodological problems with the current literature are discussed.
The findings reported in this paper indicate a substantial premium for the willingness-to-pay based value of Underground safety relative to that of roads.
Replacement of a streetcar service by a subway brings benefits for longer trips; but for travellers starting between stations, with waiting and walking time weighted more heavily than travel time, the streetcar may be better for trips of up to five miles or more.
An investigation based on experience in Toronto shows that the Yonge Street subway line led to a marked increase in density of population in bordering areas.