An analysis of the main factors influencing the proportions of male and female workers who travel to from each borough in the area. For males the most important variable is the social class composition of the borough ; for females journey time and accessibility of local employment are more important.
Topic: 10. Location And employment
employment in London reached a peak in 1962 or 1963, and then fell consistently for 20 years, but seems to have been rising again since 1982 or 1983. employment is now mainly professional and administrative. Rail transport is the only effective way to move the large numbers involved.
Telecommunications will modify travel patterns, but it is not likely to have much effect on the total volume of travel. Some journeys will become unnecessary, but business associates will eventually need to meet; people will want to move, if only from boredom; and recreational travel may increase when there is more leisure.
The authors assess the influence on the modal choice of commuters of a number of variables; the strongest are the age, density and size of the urban area. The monocentric model is modified by the development of sub-centres. Time is regarded as more important than distance.
People who have recently moved to the outlying parts of a city are more likely than other residents to commute to or towards the city centre to work. The study is based on data for Toronto.
The expected construction of the Metro line in Washington, D.C., increased values of some properties and decreased those of others. This paper considers some implications of proposals to tax the benefits.
Government policies may help inner cities, but more is needed. A computer model is used to analyse past trends and to forecast the effects of various possibilities for the city of Leeds. For instance, employment in the inner city is likely to be increased by an increase in the cost of petrol, but reduced by an increase in bus fares.
City centres were fostered by the railways; cars and buses encourage dispersal. The centre should attract young, mobile and gregarious people. Suggestions include motorways in cuttings with very few access points, linking the centre to outer suburbs only, and a reduced network of local streets making land available for public open space.
A mail canvas of 2,078 people who had recently moved into the San Francisco Bay Area indicates that residential location is a significant factor in determining individual choice of mode for the journey to work. Further research is suggested.