Topic: 14.1 Highways

A complete indexing and article service is available free from 1967 to 2000

travel Demand Forecasts and the Evaluation of Highway Schemes under Congested Conditions

An equilibrium model is used to explore the relationship between traffic forecasts and highway investment benefits under changes in variables such as car ownership, economic activity and travel costs. Failure to incorporate the effects of cost changes may lead to substantial overestimation of both traffic volumes and measures of user benefits over the lifetime of a project. The implications for conventional methods of highway appraisal are considered.

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The Appraisal of Highway Investments under Fixed and Variable Demand

The authors use a simplified model to analyse the circumstances in which fixed demand estimation will severely over- or under-estimate the equilibrium benefit of highway schemes. In view of the importance of a correct estimate of any traffic likely to be estimated, they suggest it would be appropriate to perform as a matter of course a sensitivity analysis of the benefit measures to variations in predicted response.

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Road Indivisibilities. Some Observations

The treatment of road investment differs from previous accounts by redefining the production function for road services. The paper then critically examines the belief that the provision of road service capacity is subject to pronounced indivisibilities.

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Economics and the Road Programme

This article criticises the bases on which trunk road schemes are evaluated by the Department of the Environment. traffic forecasts should relate car ownership to household characteristics rather than to the individual; small time savings should be ignored; by-passes should be judged on their value to the environment and not only on financial costs/benefits.

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