Topic: 3.3 General

A complete indexing and article service is available free from 1967 to 2000

Safety in Sea transport

This paper discusses the development of safety regulation in sea transport. It suggests that international competitive forces and regulatory capture, coupled with the slow and uneven effects of international conventions, has led to a sub-optimal level of ship safety. Reforms are therefore needed based on a systematic programme of cost-benefit analysis, involving higher quality of information.

Read More »

The Economics of “Flagging Out”

Equilibrium in the maritime transport market between the established flag sector and the flag of convenience sector is explained by reference to comparative levels of efficiency and the real cost of labour. The established flag sector would increase if it could reduce its labour costs, especially the non-wage element.

Read More »

Concentration in Shipping

The merchant fleets of seven countries show high degrees of concentration and oligopoly.  High capital intensity is a main reason.  The tendency has been reinforced in some countries by government policy.

Read More »

The Wage Subsidy Index in the Merchant Marine Act of 1970

Subsidies for US merchant fleets were formerly on a cost-plus basis, giving no incentive to economise on labour costs. The 1970 Act restricts the subsidy by reference to an index of wages paid in other industries. This has many advantages, but Dr. Franco thinks it may be disadvantageous to seamen.

Read More »

The Routeing of Ships

Queueing of ships for berths and inadequate use of berths could be eliminated by area – and ultimately world-wide – control over the route and speed of each ship. This would also prevent collisions. The author works out probable costs and benefits. International agreement would be essential.

Read More »

Proposals for a Long-Range Maritime transport Programme for the United States

The American shipping and shipbuilding industries are in decline, despite large government subsidies. A Bill now before Congress proposes an assistance programme providing $300 million a year for five years. This has instigated the major maritime interests to submit their own proposals to Congress: four of these are analysed in this article, together with a ten-year plan recently put forward by the Nixon administration.

Read More »