In recent years the Israeli government has somewhat relaxed the previously severe restrictions on charter flights to Israel. This study suggests that liberalisation will benefit the balance of payments and the national economy, but that some restriction is desirable.
Topic: 20. Economic Development
As in their article on Australian exports (in the May 1977 issue of this Journal), the authors find that the incidence of transport costs on exports from the United Kingdom to the United States is greater than that of tariffs. Savings in freight costs would stimulate international trade.
The author refutes the common belief that developing countries bear the burden of freight rates on both imports and exports. He concludes that a reduction in export rates would actually harm them, as it would lead to an increase in freight charged to importers, who cannot pass it on.
The authors find that the ad valorem incidence of transport costs on Australian exports is two or three times as high as that of most-favoured-nation tariffs. This is probably true of any developing countries. Suggestions are made for reducing transport costs.
A review of the routes and modes used for transporting groundnuts indicates that substantial economies could be made. The export of groundnuts is of great importance to Nigeria, but there has been little study of this subject, and data are unreliable.
The Nigerian federal and regional governments control the export of crops through marketing boards, and are thus in a position to influence the allocation of traffic to specific routes and modes of transport. This power has not been used as it might have been to implement a sound transport policy.
A reply to the article by L. Sychrava which appeared in this Journal in September 1968.
On completion of Thailand’s crash programme for main and secondary roads, funds will become available for tertiary feeder roads. This article discusses the selection and ranking of 124 projects, considering costs and benefits, likely increases in output, and the intangible social changes brought by a road to hitherto isolated villages.
The authors maintain that the British Government’s decision to reject the Portbury scheme and to concentrate container berths at Tilbury and Liverpool and on the Clyde will accentuate congestion and industrialisation along the north-south “transport corridor”, thus frustrating the policy of encouraging development in other regions. Throughout the world estuarine sites are increasingly attractive, and it is suggested that Portbury could be another Rotterdam.
This article contains a brief survey of the way in which political and monopolistic factors influenced the development of the railway system in Rhodesia before the creation of Zambia. the problems that now face Zambia in view of the radical change in her political and economic situation have led to proposals to build a new rail outlet to the sea, which has been the subject of conflicting reports.