The author analyses the fuel efficiency of private cars in relation to both technical characteristics and the socio-economic characteristics of the drivers for a sample of Dutch drivers. The age and profession of the driver, and fuel prices, have more significant effects than the gender and income of the driver, or the annual or commuting mileage.
Topic: 1.1 Car
This paper develops simple models of drivers’ speed selection behaviour both with and without the influence of speed limits using data from a section of rural road in Norway. The results indicate the importance of a number of personal characteristics on drivers’ speed selection behaviour, including age, driving experience, attitudes towards travel time savings, and perceptions of enforcement and penalties. Moral hazard effects may also be present.
A household makes a joint choice of type of vehicle(s) and rate of use. The authors’ model covers households with one, two, three, and four or more vehicles. It examines elasticities of fuel and other costs that vary with distance travelled, and the possibility of transfer to use of another vehicle within the household.
traffic deaths are reduced by inspection of motor vehicles, lower consumption of beer, and lower average speed. Raising the legal minimum drinking age is found to have no effect.
US law requires cars produced by each manufacturer to comply with average standards of fuel economy. The authors find that relative prices of large and small cars were adjusted during 1978 and 1979, but that in 1980 the standard was met through alterations in model characteristics and through changes in demand towards smaller cars.
Hedonic price analysis applied in the 1977 market for used cars shows elasticity in willingness to pay for increased miles per gallon. Data for 1979 are inconclusive.
Car sharing schemes can be beneficial, but in Britain their main effect is normally to abstract patronage from public transport. The author gives guidance on the shaping and presentation of schemes.
The authors study the effects of changes in the price of gasoline on the demand for gasoline, for new cars and for quality in cars.
The American preference for large rather than small cars is related to the degree of comfort provided. An experiment shows that different degrees of heat and noise may affect the frequency and duration of trips.
The location of economic activity is often considered on the basis of point trading models which show the cost of transport of products. The author suggests that the models are defective because they do not make specific allowance for backloading; he outlines a method to remedy this.