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Right of Way and Congestion Toll

Right of Way and Congestion Toll

The case for separate lanes or roads for buses and cars is based on the different characteristics of these modes. In certain conditions buses, instead of being subsidised, should pay congestion tolls even when cars do not.

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Optimal Public transport Price and Service Frequency

Because values of time and passenger behaviour depend on the level of frequency it is found that: (1) in urban public transport there may be one low-deficit local optimum and one high-deficit local optimum, one of which is global; (2) contrary to what might be expected, optimal financial deficit per passenger is typically larger for high frequency services than for low-frequency services; (3) the optimal off-peak may exceed the optimal peak price.

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