On the Costs of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles

On the Costs of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles

The authors present estimates of air pollution costs from various types of motor vehicles in the Los Angeles region. Costs are dominated by mortality particulate matter. A typical heavy-duty diesel vehicle is much more costly than the average cost. Cost estimates are sensitive to the assumed value of life, to the measured health effects of particulates, and to assumptions about road dust.

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Economies of Scale in Bus transport: I. Some British Municipal Results

This study was prompted by the proposal to merge a number of municipal transport undertakings into Passenger transport Authorities. The authors analyse figures showing various working expenses per bus-mile, and find no evidence of scale economies. They point out, however, that the P.T.A.s will be larger than any undertaking in their sample, and that a different conclusion might conceivably be reached if data were available on costs per passenger-mile. Extension of one-man operation appears to offer greater scope for economies than amalgamation.

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