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Intra-Tariff Cross-Subsidisation in Liner Shipping

Intra-Tariff Cross-Subsidisation in Liner Shipping

Conference schedules of freight rates differentiate between commodities, so that some are uneconomic and there is wasteful service competition for high-rated items, leading to excess capacity. The author advocates a radical change in the rate structure.

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Optimal Public transport Price and Service Frequency

Because values of time and passenger behaviour depend on the level of frequency it is found that: (1) in urban public transport there may be one low-deficit local optimum and one high-deficit local optimum, one of which is global; (2) contrary to what might be expected, optimal financial deficit per passenger is typically larger for high frequency services than for low-frequency services; (3) the optimal off-peak may exceed the optimal peak price.

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