Economies of Density of Ocean Tanker Ships

Economies of Density of Ocean Tanker Ships

The authors find that elasticities of costs and economies of density vary for different sizes of ships. An optimum ship size for a given type of ship should not be derived from a single ship size elasticity of operating costs.

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Economies of Scale in Bus transport: I. Some British Municipal Results

This study was prompted by the proposal to merge a number of municipal transport undertakings into Passenger transport Authorities. The authors analyse figures showing various working expenses per bus-mile, and find no evidence of scale economies. They point out, however, that the P.T.A.s will be larger than any undertaking in their sample, and that a different conclusion might conceivably be reached if data were available on costs per passenger-mile. Extension of one-man operation appears to offer greater scope for economies than amalgamation.

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