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Economies of Density of Ocean Tanker Ships

Economies of Density of Ocean Tanker Ships

The authors find that elasticities of costs and economies of density vary for different sizes of ships. An optimum ship size for a given type of ship should not be derived from a single ship size elasticity of operating costs.

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Cost Functions for Inland Waterways transport in the United States

American inland waterway transport is subject to a complicated system of control by government agencies, which require knowledge of costs. Inland waterway costs have fallen slightly, and a large share of the market has come into the hands of a small number of firms. The authors find increasing returns to scale for size of firm and output.

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