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Economics and International Liner Services

Economics and International Liner Services

An examination of the system of conferences to control charges by cargo liners. The author concludes that conferences do not maximise profits and that the rate structure is too arbitrary to deter competition; rates based on costs of carriage plus a normal profit would serve the needs of trade much better.

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Optimal Public transport Price and Service Frequency

Because values of time and passenger behaviour depend on the level of frequency it is found that: (1) in urban public transport there may be one low-deficit local optimum and one high-deficit local optimum, one of which is global; (2) contrary to what might be expected, optimal financial deficit per passenger is typically larger for high frequency services than for low-frequency services; (3) the optimal off-peak may exceed the optimal peak price.

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