A Note on the Distributional Effects of Road Pricing

A Note on the Distributional Effects of Road Pricing

Road pricing is found to be regressive or ambiguous in its effects: the large group of lower-income motorists suffers, while gains or smaller losses accrue to wealthy motorists as well as to non-motorists.

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Optimal Public transport Price and Service Frequency

Because values of time and passenger behaviour depend on the level of frequency it is found that: (1) in urban public transport there may be one low-deficit local optimum and one high-deficit local optimum, one of which is global; (2) contrary to what might be expected, optimal financial deficit per passenger is typically larger for high frequency services than for low-frequency services; (3) the optimal off-peak may exceed the optimal peak price.

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